As with the automobiletelephoneand telegrapha number of people contributed insights and inventions that eventually resulted in ever more commercially successful instruments. Historians have estimated that some form of typewriter was invented 52 times as thinkers tried to come up with a workable design  ,but certainly it is unmistakable to associate the precursor of the typewriter, "the tacheograph", to the inventor of Pietro Conti, born in Cilavegna. Early innovations[ edit ] Some of the early typing instruments:
They were characteristic of the earliest non-blackletter typefaces in European printing, and typefaces with serifs are still used.
People writing for the page rather than the screen tend to choose serif typefaces, based on the belief that the serifs help the eye follow the text more easily.
To ease identification, serif types are usually broken up into subtypes based on their features. Terminology and the precise number of categories varies, but in general we have: The types of the European Renaissancespanning from the late s to the late s.
Generally split into two phases: Humanist, Jensonian or Venetian Old-Style: The earliest printed serif fonts, making a break with the earlier Blackletter tradition e. More-or-less codified by the work of Nicolas Jenson c. The crossbar of the lowercase "e" sits at an angle, and the whole thing feels more "written" than "designed".
Named after printers Aldo Manuzio and the later Claude Garamont, both of whom established models that numerous others followed. First used by the Aldine Press in printing a book by Pietro Bembo about a trip up Mount Aetna aroundit features a lowercase "e" with a horizontal bar and overall more regular proportions and details.
Line contrast is low-to-moderate. The French old-styles in the manner of Garamont and his contemporaries continue this theme, gradually becoming more formalized and distinct from writing. Italic type exists also first printed by the Aldine Pressbut at the time is completely independent of the upright roman style.
The major contribution in French old-styles is the use of slanted capitals to flow with the italic lowercase; previously, only upright roman capitals were used apart from swash calligraphic initials, which were usually written in after printing.
In general, the stroke angle goes from diagonal to upright or nearly upright, under the influence of the handwriting of the period using the pointed pen. There is greater contrast from thick to thin, and a greater influence of geometry.
The types of the Enlightenment, characterized by the work coming out of the Low Countries during the 17th and early 18th century, particularly Amsterdam and Antwerp. The overall style is similar to the 16th-century French models, but is more condensed and has a darker overall impression, influenced by the blackletter styles still prevalent there.
These types were brought to England by Dr. John Fell in the early 18th century, influencing the subsequent work of William Caslon. Italic type is starting to be used in combination with the roman, but only tentatively.
Contrast is much more pronounced than before, and italic types more closely resemble their roman counterparts, being more readily intermixed.
Technical improvements in ink and punchcutting allow much sharper corners and thinner strokes on type, and in combination with smooth, bright white "wove" paper, there was a belief among critics that reading them for long stretches would cause blindness.
Others were more enthusiastic; Benjamin Franklin actually wrote to Baskerville, praising his work. Scotch Roman or Scotch Modern: Types originating in Scotland at the end of the 18th century, influenced in equal measure by the Neoclassical faces from England and the Didones from France and Italy.
Once the types made it to the U. Modern, Didone or Romantic: The quintessential types for fashion magazines, epitomized by the work of Giambattista Bodoni in Italy, the Didot family in France, and to a somewhat lesser extent Justus Erich Walbaum in what is now Germany.This paper identifies the most important innovations in software, removing hardware advances and products that didn't embody significant new software innovations.
Its results may surprise you. Here are some typewriter user's manuals and service manuals. Thanks to all who have contributed! If you have a manual you'd like to add to this page, contact me. —Richard Polt. You’re looking at one right now.
What a font is, precisely, has varied in meaning over time. In letterpress printing using metal type, a “font” was a complete set of characters in a specific size and style of typeface (a set of characters that share a common design structure).
IBM introduces the "Selectric" Typewriter, an electric typewriter which uses a replaceable golf ball-shaped typing element rather than type bars or movable leslutinsduphoenix.com Selectric becomes a popular piece of office equipment because of its ease in changing fonts and because it .
The IBM Selectric typewriter was a highly successful model line of electric typewriters introduced by IBM on 31 July Instead of the "basket" of individual typebars that swung up to strike the ribbon and page in a typical typewriter of the period, the Selectric had a "typing element" (frequently called a "typeball", or more informally, a "golf ball") that rotated and pivoted to the.
Courier, as printed, will look too crisp and even to come from a manual typewriter, or an electric typewriter with a inked cloth ribbon, but it will look like print from a brand new IBM Selectric "golf ball" typewriter from the s, if the Selectric was outfitted with .