November 19, Introduction We began by reviewing our introduction to recombinant DNA technology in the last lecture. To study genes, we need to be able to isolate genes in quantity.
Free online reading 1. Introduction I think nobody can afford to ignore the progress that is made in science today. Scientific research gives us knowledge about things that nobody ever thought about just a few years ago, for example the cloning of humans.
In this essay I want to focus on this topic with special regard to the advantages and disadvantages and the social and ethical problems. I will start with a definition of cloning.
The next part of the essay will be about the beginning of life followed by a listing of arguments about advantages and disadvantages of human cloning.
Furthermore my essay will involve a look on cloning and sciene fiction and finish with the economic reasons for cloning humans. My motivation to do the essay about this topic is not only that it is crucial for everybody to think about cloning but in my mind it is also very interesting and exciting to learn more about it.
It is a scientific possibility that has become reality. Maybe cloning and genetic engineering will someday even affect my life or that of my children.
I hope that I will be able to learn enough about cloning by writing this essay so that I can make up my mind on how I feel about this topic. Cloning 1 The word cloning originated from the greek and means sprout or branch.
Cloning is an asexual kind of reproduction. In order to understand the technique we first have to know how sexual reproduction basically works.
The gametes have only half of the chromosomes a body cell has because during sexual reproduction the egg cell and the sperm cell come together and create a new life which then has a complete set of chromosomes 46 in every body cell again, 23 from the mother and 23 from the father.
If gametes would have complete chromosome sets, too, the number of chromosomes in the body cells of the following generations would continue to grow. Cloning works kind of similar but since the goal is to create something which is genetically identical to one model the fertilization process has to take place with the chromosomes the hereditary material of only one person or thing.
This can only be done by scientists in the laboratory asexual. It works like this: One body cell from the model is taken and the core of the cell is removed the core contains the whole hereditary material which is on 46 chromosomes.
The fertilized egg cell then contains 46 chromosomes like it contains after sexual fertilization but with the difference that these 46 chromosomes are from one person and not from two, the man and the woman.
What happens with this fertilized egg cell next depends on what kind of cloning is to be practised, either therapeutic cloning or reproductive cloning. When the cell has itself a few times divided, the valueable embryonic stem cells can be taken from the developing embryo, hereby the embryo is killed.
These embryonic stem cells are so valueable because they can only be won from umbilical cord or from embryos and they are crucial for scientific research. The purpose of therapeutic cloning is to clone things such as organs and tissue for patients in need see advantages and disadvantages of human cloning.
Therefore reproductive cloning has the purpose of actually producing a human that is genetically identical to somebody else. When does life begin? You could say that the genetic identity is like an instruction for the creation of the embryo, it just takes nine months till this instruction is realized.
From fertilization on the embryo develops as a human and not to a human. Some other opinions to the question where life begins are the following: It needs the mothers body to survive and to develop to full maturity. It is easily explainable why people favor this argument.
After some time for example three months has passed one can at least recognize the shape of an embryo. Argument one has at least a reasoning but the others a hardly acceptable from the biological point of view as there is no proof for them.
The reason why it is important to define the beginning of life is that with its beginning every human has basic human rights that are unimpeachable.
These rights are granted to every human without regard of attributes like age, race, sex, state of health or anything else and involve the right of human dignity and the right to live. With cloning we would hurt these human rights, if one believes that life begins with fertilization.
When a scientist takes stem cells from an embryo for therapeutic cloning and kills the embryo afterwards it is a violation of the right to live. Before we can make up our mind on how we feel about cloning we defenetly have to ask us where we see the beginnig of life and we have to know the different advantages and disadvantages of cloning that I will discuss on the following pages.Human Cloning and Stem-Cell Research.
In the past several years, cloning has been a rising concern on the minds of the medical and bioethics community. In February of , the world learned of the first successful cloning of a mammal, a sheep named Dolly.
Since then, the idea of cloning as a /5(9). How to Clone Plants. In this Article: Article Summary Gathering The Right Materials Planting The Stem Letting it Grow Community Q&A Plant cloning is a simple process that allows you to replicate a plant by clipping a stem and replanting it.
One position that opponents of embryonic stem cell research assert is what "The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research" calls the full moral status view (14). This view holds that "the early embryo has the same moral status, that is, the same basic moral rights, claims, or interests as an ordinary adult human being.".
rice krispies essay narrative essay organization interference quimica analytical essay the stone carvers essay lessay rallycross tx68 thrasymachus essay dis. Ethical Debates Surrounding Stem Cell Research View Paper .
What follows is a brief description of the primary types of human stem cells that have captured the interest of scientists, clinicians, ethicists, policymakers, and religious organizations.
So, there is a continuity of human life from a surplus cell which a human produces by the millions each day, to the pre-embryo. Theoretically, these stem cells can be used to develop into replacement organs (heart, liver, pancreas, skin, etc) Therapeutic cloning has not yet been accomplished in .