Early civilization assessment

Carter, Louisiana State University F. Uncertainties about future socioeconomic conditions as well as future climate changes can make it difficult to arrive at adaptation decisions now. However, the pace and magnitude of projected change emphasize the need to be prepared for a wide range and intensity of climate impacts in the future.

Early civilization assessment

See Article History Alternative Titles: It is known from archaeological evidence that a highly sophisticated urbanized culture—the Indus civilization —dominated the northwestern part of the subcontinent from about to bce.

From that period on, India functioned as a virtually self-contained political and cultural arena, which gave rise to a distinctive tradition that was associated primarily with Hinduismthe roots of which can largely be traced to the Indus civilization.

Other religions, notably Buddhism and Jainismoriginated in India—though their presence there is now quite small—and throughout the centuries residents of the subcontinent developed a rich intellectual life in such fields as mathematics, astronomy, architecture, literature, music, and the fine arts.

Throughout its history, India was intermittently disturbed by incursions from beyond its northern mountain wall. Especially important was the coming of Islambrought from the northwest by Arab, Turkish, Persian, and other raiders beginning early in the 8th century ce.

Eventually, some of those raiders stayed; by the 13th century much of the subcontinent was under Muslim rule, and the number of Muslims steadily increased. Only after the arrival of the Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama in and the subsequent establishment of European maritime supremacy in the region did India become exposed to major external influences arriving by sea, a process that culminated in the decline of the ruling Muslim elite and absorption of the subcontinent within the British Empire.

The Taj Mahal in Agra, India, one of the world's great architectural masterpieces. When British rule came to an end inthe subcontinent was partitioned along religious lines into two separate countries—India, with a majority of Hindus, and Pakistanwith a majority of Muslims; the eastern portion of Pakistan later split off to form Bangladesh.

Many British institutions stayed in place such as the parliamentary system of government ; English continued to be a widely used lingua franca; and India remained within the Commonwealth.

Hindi became the official language and a number of other local languages achieved official statuswhile a vibrant English-language intelligentsia thrived. India remains one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the world. Apart from its many religions and sects, India is home to innumerable castes and tribes, as well as to more than a dozen major and hundreds of minor linguistic groups from several language families unrelated to one another.

Religious minorities, including Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains, still account for a significant proportion of the population; collectively, their numbers exceed the populations of all countries except China. Earnest attempts have been made to instill a spirit of nationhood in so varied a population, but tensions between neighbouring groups have remained and at times have resulted in outbreaks of violence.

At independence, India was blessed with several leaders of world stature, most notably Mohandas Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehruwho were able to galvanize the masses at home and bring prestige to India abroad.

The country has played an increasing role in global affairs. It is bounded to the northwest by Pakistanto the north by NepalChinaand Bhutan ; and to the east by Myanmar Burma. Bangladesh to the east is surrounded by India to the north, east, and west.

The island country of Sri Lanka is situated some 40 miles 65 km off the southeast coast of India across the Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar. In area, India ranks as the seventh largest country in the world.

India has two union territories composed entirely of islands: When the two finally collided approximately 50 million years agothe northern edge of the Indian-Australian Plate was thrust under the Eurasian Plate at a low angle.

The collision reduced the speed of the oncoming plate, but the underthrusting, or subduction, of the plate has continued into contemporary times. The effects of the collision and continued subduction are numerous and extremely complicated.

An important consequence, however, was the slicing off of crustal rock from the top of the underthrusting plate. Those slices were thrown back onto the northern edge of the Indian landmass and came to form much of the Himalayan mountain system.

The new mountains—together with vast amounts of sediment eroded from them—were so heavy that the Indian-Australian Plate just south of the range was forced downward, creating a zone of crustal subsidence.

Early civilization assessment

Continued rapid erosion of the Himalayas added to the sediment accumulation, which was subsequently carried by mountain streams to fill the subsidence zone and cause it to sink more. Further information on the geology of India is found in the article Asia.

That great, geologically young mountain arc is about 1, miles 2, km long, stretching from the peak of Nanga Parbat 26, feet [8, metres] in the Pakistani-administered portion of the Kashmir region to the Namcha Barwa peak in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.

Between those extremes the mountains fall across India, southern Tibet, Nepal, and Bhutan. The width of the system varies between and miles and km.

North of the Himalayas are the Plateau of Tibet and various Trans-Himalayan ranges, only a small part of which, in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state in the Indian-administered portion of Kashmirare within the territorial limits of India.

Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India: Gerald Cubitt Because of the continued subduction of the Indian peninsula against the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayas and the associated eastern ranges remain tectonically active. As a result, the mountains are still rising, and earthquakes —often accompanied by landslides —are common.

Several since have been devastating, including one in in what is now Bihar state that killed more than 10, people. In another tremor the Bhuj earthquakefarther from the mountains, in Gujarat state, was less powerful but caused extensive damage, taking the lives of more than 20, people and leaving more thanhomeless.The National Climate Assessment summarizes the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future.

Indus Valley Civilisation - Wikipedia Early Vedic period In addition to the archaeological legacy discussed above, there remains from this period the earliest literary record of Indian culturethe Vedas. Composed in archaicor Vedic, Sanskrit, generally dated between and bce, and transmitted orally, the Vedas comprise four major texts—the Rig- the Sama- the Yajur- and the Atharvaveda.
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Maya civilization - Wikipedia The Indus Valley Civilisation was also named as the Harappan civilisation after Harappathe first of its sites to be excavated in the s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India. The Kulli culture of Balochistan, of which more than settlement sites are known, can be regarded as a local variant of the IVC, or a related culture.

Fermented grain, fruit juice and honey have been used to make alcohol (ethyl alcohol or ethanol) for thousands of years. Fermented beverages existed in early Egyptian civilization, and there is evidence of an early alcoholic drink in China around B.C.

In India, an alcoholic beverage called sura, distilled from rice, was in use between and B.C. UW TACOMA DIVISION OF SOCIAL AND HISTORICAL STDY HISTORY (TACOMA) Detailed course offerings (Time Schedule) are available for. Autumn Quarter ; Winter Quarter ; T HIST Introduction to History Methods (5) I&S Introduces students to historians' methods for researching and writing, including Chicago style, with a focus on formulating, researching, and writing a history .

Transcript of Ancient Civilizations Project- Summative Assessment photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli By: Angelo Harding Egyptian Tools The time in Egypt before dynasties, lasted from to B.C. East Asian Studies. East Asian Studies Specialist | East Asian Studies Major | East Asian Studies Minor; East Asian Studies Courses; Faculty Professors Emeriti S.

Sep 02,  · California is in the third year of one of the state's worst droughts in the past century, one that's led to fierce wildfires, water shortages and restrictions, and potentially staggering.

Nov 15,  · The potential future effects of global climate change include more frequent wildfires, longer periods of drought in some regions and an increase in the number, duration and intensity of . East Asian Studies. East Asian Studies Specialist | East Asian Studies Major | East Asian Studies Minor; East Asian Studies Courses; Faculty Professors Emeriti S. The National Climate Assessment summarizes the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future.
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