In historical terms, the concept of authenticity is a relatively new ideal that evolved in Western Europe between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. This period of time was marked by the breakdown of the traditional feudal order, an increase in social mobility, the emergence of capitalism, and an evolving sense of individualism. Lionel Trilling suggested that the origins of authenticity as a moral value can be traced to an earlier tradition emerging in sixteenth century Europe that came to view sincerity as an important virtue.
Nietzsche in the Bolshevik Revolution and the Civil War, — 5. Bolshevik Fusions of Marx, Engels, and Nietzsche 6. Art as a Lie: Nietzsche and Socialist Realism Nietzsche and Stalinist Political Culture The Stalin Cult and Its Complements Cultural Expressions of the Will to Power Epilogue: The worst readers are those who behave like plundering troops; they take away a few things they can use, dirty and confound the remainder, and revile the whole.
Elegantly subtle sophistries— All turned into blood. This book excavates the long-obscured trail of ideas influenced by Nietzsche that entered into and helped shape Bolshevism and Stalinism. By Nietzschean ideas, I mean ideas indebted to Nietzsche directly or at one or more removes.
One did not have to read Nietzsche to be influenced by him. The pollen of his ideas hung in the atmosphere for decades, fertilizing many Russian and Soviet minds. His quotable aphorisms could be detached from their context and deployed in a variety of ways.
Its open-endedness and ambiguity enables people to read their own meanings into such concepts as the Superman, the "will to power," and "great cultural projects. The works of the "philosopher with a hammer" touched deep cultural chords, reverberating with, reinforcing, and reactivating ideas indigenous to Russia.
His striking slogans and memorable images stayed with people long after they read him. Nietzsche was the spark that fused discrete, seemingly contradictory, elements into new amalgams, such as Nietzschean Marxism and Nietzschean Christianity.
Some of these were unstable and transitory.
Others endured and evolved, but one idea remained constant: Nietzsche imbued radicals of various persuasions with visions of total transformation against which liberalism and evolutionary Marxism seemed pallid.
Nietzsche enthusiasts seized on the eschatological and voluntarist aspects of Marxism to commandeer the existing Russian apocalypticism and to revitalize the voluntaristic and "heroic" aspects of the intelligentsia ethos.
Bolshevik intellectuals did not confine their reading to Marxist works. They knew Russian and European literature and philosophy and kept up with current trends in art and thought.
Nietzsche sensitized Bolsheviks committed to reason and science to the importance of the nonrational aspects of the human psyche and to the psychopolitical utility of symbol, myth, and cult. His visions of "great politics" grosse Politik colored their imaginations. Politik, like the Russian word politika, means both "politics" and "policy"; "grosse" has also been translated as "grand" or "large scale.
Marx and Engels never developed a detailed theory of culture because they considered it part of the superstructure that would change to follow changes in the economic base. Focusing on culture, rather than political events or social structure, I highlight a set of issues that I call the Nietzschean agenda.
This agenda was established by his Russian admirers between andwhen Nietzsche could be discussed openly and his thought was russified and absorbed into the culture.
Responding to the changes transforming their country, Nietzsche enthusiasts espoused new values and sought a new ideal in Nietzschean terms, a new myth by which to live and on which to base their work and transform their world.
The other items on the agenda—a quest for a "new word," a new art form, a new ideal of man and womana new morality, a new politics, and a new science—were related to the quest for a new myth.
For close to half a century, then, the Nietzschean agenda thus passed from one generation to another, each generation offering new answers to the same questions and issues. Their primary interests were art, culture, and the "inner man" the soul or the psyche.
Spiritual radicals, they interpreted the "will to power" as creativity, detested the quotidian aspects of life bytand unlike Nietzsche, held that empirical reality is but a symbol of a higher reality that can be apprehended intuitively.
Opposed to positivism, rationalism, and materialism, they imagined "other worlds than ours" and plumbed the depths of the human soul.
Rejecting the "slavish" kenotic values of humility, altruism, and asceticism, they hailed Nietzsche as a proponent of self-affirming individualism and enjoyment of life, a trespasser of forbidden boundaries and established moral codes, and highlighted his paeans to laughter and to dancing.
Later on, however, they denounced individualism as atomistic or decadent and restored one or more of the kenotic values which ones depended on the symbolistdefending their turnabout with different quotations from Nietzsche.
Their myths featured a leap from necessity to freedom in the cosmic, rather than the Marxist, sense, and the transfiguration of man and the world through art. The symbolist poet would articulate the salvific "new word.3 Namely the Western perceptions and arguments about the Russian cultural and spiritual inferiority led Tyutchev to an open and public engagement with questions of international politics and culture.
He was not able to endure the moral and intellectual pride of the West that he . Remembering Jerome Bruner. Chiefly a developmental psychologist, he contributed significantly to areas as diverse as perception, cultural psychology, education, thinking, and concept learning.
But what makes him exceptional is that he was at the forefront of several major paradigm shifts in psychology. This symposium contains essays by.
Passion and Perception: Essays on Russian Culture [Richard Stites] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This collection of Stitesiana includes twenty-nine essays on Russian culture, which the author desired to be collected and published in a single volume.
This collection represents the bulk of twenty years of scholarshipAuthor: Richard Stites. Note: Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study.
The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied. The artist’s mission is to make the soul perceptible.
Our scientific, materialist culture trains us to develop the eyes of outer perception. Visionary art encourages the development of our inner sight.
To find the visionary realm, we use the intuitive inner eye: The eye of contemplation; the eye of the soul. All the inspiring ideas [ ]. Knowledge of multiple languages, including Russian, helped me get my first full-time job after I completed my studies (prior to working for the Middle East Times).I worked as a project coordinator in a translation services agency in Palo Alto, CA.