Once the avowed comrade of Qaddafi, Bashir, Assad and Ahmedinejad, he has now emerged as a rousing democrat, defender of the Arab revolts. He seems to have been successful in burying the past—at least in Turkey where public criticism is increasingly muted and he reigns supreme. In Syria, he has joined the West by distancing Turkey from Assad but not yet disowning him, incurring the wrath of both Syria and its staunchest ally, Iran, which has sent warnings to Ankara. In Libya, which once bestowed upon him the Qaddafi human-rights awardhe is trying desperately to restore the huge Turkish economic stake by fervently and helpfully embracing the rebels.
Most of the modern states of the Middle East were created as a result of agreements between the British and the French at the end of World War I. Much of the region had belonged to the Ottoman Empire for over years. Since Turkey was defeated in the war, Britain and France became the chief beneficiaries of the dismemberment of Ottoman colonial holdings.
The area was divided into British and French spheres of influence by the arbitrary drawing of national borders without regard to ethnic and religious lines, or ancient water rights and tribal holdings. Great Britain inonly four days after signing the armistice, occupied what had been the oil-rich Ottoman province of Mosul, in the southern part The kurdish problem Kurdistan.
The Turks bitterly protested, but Turkey was too weak to oppose the British. Inthe British and other Western allies established, in the Treaty of Sevres, a Kurdish homeland out of the remnants of an area in the eastern Ottoman Empire which the Kurds had demographically dominated for centuries.
I think we both agree that to encourage Kurdish independence in the short term and then leave will only expose the Kurds to genocide or ethnic cleansing. That is what Greece did to the Orthodox w its invasion of Anatolia. Overreach elicits a back lash. We saw that in Iraq. The plan was to attach the Kurdish-inhabited Mosul area to two other former Turkish provinces—Sunni Baghdad in northern Mesopotamia and Shiite Basra in southern Mesopotamia.
This would have created a wealthy, pro-British protectorate strategically located on the Gulf. These early manoeuvres by the powers of the day to control both natural resources and transportation routes with little regard for the indigenous people reflect the accepted norms of victors of war throughout history.
The lack of sophistication and overall cohesion, tribalism, multiple language dialects and most importantly the lack of a powerful sponsor are factors which contributed to the Kurds being left again without any territory of their own after World War I.
Some 20 million to 25 million Kurds inhabit the rugged highlands cutting across Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Armenia; the largest segment resides in Turkey.
Their allegiance to the host states is often tenuous, and they have frequently rebelled. The Kurds have existed as a tribal people with their own cultural tradition and language for at least years. As we trace the Kurds over the years since World War I, it becomes clear that successive governments in Iraq and the other countries with large Kurdish populations have, in varying extremes, attempted to assimilate the Kurds into their national fold by eradicating the Kurdish culture and suppressing them politically.
Ina League of Nations commission mandated that the province of Mosul be incorporated into the new British protectorate called Iraq.
It also provided that the Kurds were to be given local autonomy and Kurdish made the official language. The Turks, determined to be pro-Western, finally agreed to give up Mosul and all of its oil for a mereBritish pounds.
Kurds helped free MosulKurds got kicked out of Kerkuk! Kurds kicked Isis out of Raqqa Kurds got kicked out of Afrin! Kurds have values and respect. They are strong and becoming united — My infojeko Navneman navneman March 17, Many Turks consider this a terrible decision and have never accepted this oil-rich, non-Arab region as part of an Arab state.
The Kurds, however, have never been able to achieve autonomy or the freedom of unrestricted use of the Kurdish language. They remain the only grouping of over 15 million persons which has not achieved some form of statehood.
Turkish authorities ruthlessly suppressed these revolts and subsequently sought to eliminate all manifestations of Kurdish nationalism and limit expressions of Kurdish culture.
Neither the twin forces of suppression and cooptation nor the conservative influence of local Kurdish chieftains has been able to quash the drive for autonomy or independence. Indeed, Kurdish culture remains a wellspring of nationalism.The foundation of Turkey’s difficult relationship with its Kurdish minority was laid after World War I, when the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into various nation-states.
The teaching of the Kurdish language itself or teaching subjects using Kurdish has been restricted in varying degrees in Iraq, Turkey, Iran and Syria. Literacy in Arabic, however, has been encouraged. Levels of literacy tend to be higher in areas where Kurdish is used in school curriculums.
The Kurdish Problem. A new revolt is brewing in the Middle East. Prepare for the Kurdish Spring. The Republic of Turkey's Kurdish problem has led to decades of unending violence save for the three years of peace enjoyed by both Kurds and Turks in the southeast, but the PKK's obsolete war will not pave the way for the necessary reforms.
The Kurdish problem will probably be solved not at the global or regional level, but separately and by stages, in countries where Kurds live compactly and are in the minority. There is little likelihood that these states will split .
Apr 22, · Until recently, Turkey was even denying having a Kurdish problem to begin with, and speaking Kurdish was a crime according to the law. Therefore, it was sensation when Prime Minister of Turkey, Mr.
Erdogan admitted that there is a Kurdish leslutinsduphoenix.coms: