While state schools suffer and middle-class students drown in loans, elite universities are only getting richer.
I respect Richard immensely, but I have a problem describing as "gentrification" middle-class white people moving back to neighborhoods that were initially settled by middle-class white and black people, but that became slums after white flight in the s.
To me, that is recovery, plain and simple. Furthermore, if people buy grand mansions built by successful merchants - that were later turned into crappy apartments - and renovate them as mansions, is that gentrification? I don't care HOW LONG these properties were serving poor populations as inadequate housing, they are being returned to their intended purpose.
Treme was traditionally settled by working class craftsmen who built their own homes. There, I can see an argument for gentrification. But certainly in Mid-City and the LGD - and possibly The progressive tax system essay the Marigny, Bywater and other areas, the people who own these homes now are comparable with those who built them originally.
They enjoy many of the same pursuits. The fact that our tastes are now more sophisticated and we eat goat cheese versus Creole cream cheese is a sign of the times and a product of modern life, not gentrification.
For that matter, I don't see how you can argue that the French Quarter has been overly gentrified, given that the people who originally settled it were successful business people or wealthy landowners, in many cases. The rise and fall of New Orleans' fortunes has been too significant and frequent for most neighborhoods to qualify as "gentrified.
Your point is interesting; however, the past where most of the population lived in the urban core has no resemblance to the modern day "recovery", which really is gentrification.
The urban core has morphed completely from what it once was. The "flight" phenomenon is not so much "white" as "upwardly mobile".
It is an economic phenomenon rather than a racial one. Any minority member who could afford to, fled too. They have "white trash" or "Chavs" making up the majority of the population in some blighted areas of cities in the UK; and anyone who can, gets out, including once-poor Asians who work harder and are more thrifty.
I know there is a paper somewhere which finds that cities that retained "industry" in their cores for the longest, lost the MOST residents. A higher rate of industries moving out of the core actually correlates to earlier metamorphosis to "gentrified" conditions.
One of the curious features of the so-called "urban renewal" taking place in the United States is the insistence of two new master-signifiers: In Paris, where I have lived for the last nine years, neither of these terms has imposed itself on general discourse as they have in the United States.
Although the process of gentrification exists, it does not capture the imagination of those who witness, participate in, or are displaced because of it.
It would appear that in France, "gentrification" is considered an inevitable feature of the ebb and flow of city life. Likewise with "sustainability", which is not seen as a magical master-signifier leading the way forward towards the perfect form of social organization, but rather as something that is simply preferable to its alternatives.
In other words, these two concepts, although they exist in France and in French, have not inspired the same fetishization that they have in the United States. Let us first address the question of gentrification.
Gentrification, as explored, for example, in Richard Campanella's article on the post-Katrina metamorphosis of New Orleans, refers to the irruption of a new form of social organization.
We must not, however, content ourselves with a simple description of the process by which succeeding demographic waves transform a city from, essentially, poor and black to rich and white. We must rather focus our attention on the new meta-phenomenon of the fascination with this process on the part of those who are its agents.
Rich areas go to seed. Poor areas get rich again. Such is the cycle of city life. What is happening now is different. If so many people are interested in gentrification as such, if this process suddenly needs a word, it is because this word refers to what might be referred to as a symptom in all of its dignity and not simply a background peristaltic process.
Speaking broadly, what distinguishes a symptom from a simple conflict is that the symptom incarnates the dialectical process as such.
Like the eye of the storm on Jupiter that roams across the surface of the planet without ever resolving itself, the symptom is that nodal point in the dialectical process where the irreducible ontological kernel of conflict manifests itself. Of what, then, is gentrification a symptom?The marginal tax rate is based on a progressive tax system, where tax rates for an individual will increase as income rises.
This method of taxation aims to fairly tax individuals based upon. Need essay sample on Progressive Tax Rate Progressive taxation can encourage talented workers who earn high incomes to move overseas to escape the tax system.
This can create a “brain drain”. Alternatively, as the marginal benefit of extra work falls, they may be less keen to spend more time on it, negatively impacting productivity.
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